– दीपक अर्याल
ज्ञान के हो वा यसको श्रोत के हो? के ज्ञानका लागि स्कुल, कलेज वा विश्वविद्यालयका शिक्षा अपरिहार्य छन् वा ती नै पूर्ण छन्? सामान्यत: वर्तमान शिक्षा प्रणालीले हामीलाई त्यहीँ सिकाउँछ। हो, पढ्न, लेख्नन आवश्यक छ तर वर्तमान शैक्षिक योग्यता मात्र ज्ञानको श्रोत हो कि होइन? त्यसमा भने विवाद गर्ने प्रशस्त ठाउँ छ। शायद हामीलाई मानसिक रूपमा वर्तमान शिक्षा प्रणाली वा यसबाट प्रात भएको शैक्षिक योग्यता नै ज्ञानको एक मात्र श्रोत हो भन्ने भ्रम पाल्न सिकाइएको छ। शिक्षा आफैमा ज्ञानको श्रोत हो तर त्यसको दायरा भने स्कुल, कलेज वा विश्वविद्यालयमा मात्र सिमीत छैन। (more…)
– Deepak Aryal
The world “library” as known today was not used in ancient times. According to the Oxford English dictionary, the word “library” was used in English as early as 1374 AD, as a place where books were kept for reading, study or reference. The earliest known body of written materials was assembled in Mesopotamia (in present-day Iraq and Syria) more than 5,000 years ago. In Asia, the earliest documented libraries were connected with temples and centers of religious learning.
The rulers of ancient times had keen interest in reading writing and collecting books and manuscripts, which are evidenced by the collection of manuscripts available in The National Archive of Nepal in Kathmandu. In 1986 BS (1930AD) some active youths tried to open a public library but it could not succeed and few young people were arrested. This is portrayed as a “Library Parba” in Nepal. However, some libraries were established before the end of Rana regime. Book Reading Veranda, Palpa, 1983BS, Pashupati Pratap Library, Kapilvastu 1993BS, Mahabir Library, Butwal 2004BS, Aadarsha Library, Biratnagar, 2003BS(1946AD), Pradipta library, Kathmandu, 2003BS (1946AD), Sharada Library, Kathmandu, 2003BS (1946AD), Sarbajanik Sikchya Niketan, 2004BS (1947AD), Sarada Library, Rautahat, 2004BS (1947AD), Himalaya Sarbajanik Library 2004BS, Padma library,Tanahu, 2004BS (1947AD), Tribhuvan-Mohan Library, Dang, 2005BS (1948AD), Shreeram Library, Bhojpur, 2005BS, were the main libraries which had established before Rana Regime.
“Aap to ‘Bahadur’ nahi lagate!” (You don’t look like Bahadur), he seriously doubted my self-introduction as a Nepali student who wanted to go to the YMCA Guest house of Jai Singh Road from Indira Gandhi International Airport, Delhi. It was my third visit to India and noone asked this kind of question in my previous visits. So, I was completely confused and did not have any clue why my taxi-driver both wanted to and hesitated to understand me as ‘Bahadur’ and how I was different from the Bahadur whom he knows or cogitates.
There is a large body of critical literature on theories and practices of ethnic stereotypes. Journalist Walter Lippmann (1922) likened ‘stereotypes’, coined in 1798 originally referred to a printing process or reproduction, to “pictures in the head,” or mental reproductions of reality. Salinas (2003) states in his book ‘The Politics of Stereotype’ that the stereotypes are mentally constructed which are activated in an automatic, unconscious manner and affect both the stereotyping mind and the stereotyped. The social identity theory of stereotypes and prejudice agree to view the development of stereotypes and prejudice as a function of socio-cultural factors and intergroup relations. Such as ‘Jews have large Noses’ (physical
appearance), ‘Negroes are stupid’ (their intelligence) or ‘Japanese are sly’ (their personality) (Rinehart, 1963).
– Deepak Aryal
Oral tradition has become a domain of great interest to scholars of different disciplines of knowledge such as literature, psychology, anthropology, and philosophy. It has a huge scope for the discipline of communication too. This article presents an appraisal of oral tradition as a means of communication from one generation to another. While doing so, it deals with following issues: Can history be narrated based on oral traditions just as it is done with ‘written documents’? Are the oral traditions only the sources of historiography or do they have other implications too? It also discusses whether oral traditions can be taken as valid historical sources, and, if not, whether there are Deepak Aryal. Oral tradition and communication